Psychology Events: 19th Century
19th century was when psychology was established as an empirical,
accepted science. While measures would change within that 100-year
span, the model of research and evaluation would begin to take
- 1878: G.
Stanley Hall becomes the first American to
earn a Ph.D. in psychology.
- 1879: Wilhelm
Wundt establishes the first
experimental psychology lab in Leipzig,
Germany dedicated to the study of the mind.
G. Stanley Hall opens the first experimental psychology lab in
the U.S. at Johns Hopkins University.
Herman Ebbinghaus publishes his seminal "Über das Gedächtnis"
("On Memory") in which he describes learning and memory
experiments he conducted on himself.
- 1886: Sigmund
Freud begins offering therapy to patients in
- 1888: James
McKeen Cattell becomes the first professor
of psychology at the University of Pennsylvania. He would later
publish "Mental Tests and Measurements," marking the advent of
- 1890: William
James publishes "Principles of Psychology."
Sir Francis Galton establishes correlation techniques to better
understand the relationships between variables in intelligence
G. Stanley Hall forms the American
Psychological Association(APA), enlisting 26
members in the first meeting.
Lightner Witmer establishes the first psychology clinic in
- 1898: Edward
Thorndike develops the Law
Psychology Events: 1900 to 1950
first half of the 20th century was dominated by two major figures:
Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. It was a time when the foundation of
analysis was built, including Freud's examination of
psychopathology and Jung's analytic psychology.
Sigmund Freud publishes his landmark book, "Interpretation
The British Psychological Society is established.
- 1905: Mary
Whiton Calkins is elected the first woman
president of the American Psychological Association. Alfred
Binet introduces the intelligence
- 1906: Ivan
Pavlov publishes his findings on classical
Jung publishes "The Psychology of Dementia
- 1911: Edward
Thorndike publishes "Animal Intelligence," which leads to the
development of the theory of operant
- 1912: Max
Wertheimer publishes "Experimental Studies
of the Perception of Movement," which leads to the development
Carl Jung begins to depart from Freudian views and develops his
own theories, which he refers to as analytical psychology. John
B. Watson publishes "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views"
in which he establishes the concept of behaviorism.
Freud publishes work on repression.
Watson and Rosalie Rayner publish research on classical
conditioning of fear with their subject, Little
- 1932: Jean
Piaget becomes the foremost cognitive
theorist with the publication of his work "The Moral Judgment of
- 1942: Carl
Rogers develops the practice of client-centered therapy,
which encourages respect and positive regard for patients.
Psychology Events: 1950 to 2000
latter half of the 20th century was centered around
the standardization of the diagnostic criteria of mental illness,
hallmarked by the release of the Diagnostic
and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) by
the American Psychiatric Association. It is the foundational tool
still in use today to direct diagnosis and treatment.
The first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
- 1954: Abraham
Maslow publishes "Motivation and
Personality," describing his theory of a hierarchy
of needs. He is one of the founders of humanistic
Harry Harlow publishes "The
Nature of Love," which describes the importance
of attachment and love in rhesus monkeys.
- 1961: Albert
Bandura conducts his now-famous Bobo
doll experimentin which
child behavior is
described as a construct of observation, imitation, and modeling.
Bandura first describes the concept of observational learning to
- 1974: Stanley
Milgram publishes "Obedience to Authority,"
which describes the findings of his famous obedience
The DSM-III is published.
Noam Chomsky publishes "On the Nature, Use, and Acquisition of
Steven Pinker publishes an article introducing his theories as
to how children acquire language, which he later publishes in
the book "The Language Instinct."
The DSM-IV is published.
Psychology Events: 21st Century
the advent of genetic science, psychologists are
now grappling with the ways in which physiology and genetics
contribute to a person's psychological being.
Steven Pinker publishes "The Blank Slate," arguing against the
concept of tabula
rasa (the theory that the mind is a blank
slate at birth). Avshalom Caspi
offers the first evidence that genetics are associated with a
child's response to maltreatment.3 Psychologist
Daniel Kahneman is awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics
for his research on how people make judgments in the face of
Genetic researchers finish mapping human genes, with the aim of
isolating the individual chromosomes responsible for
physiological and neurological conditions.4
- 2010: Simon LeVay publishes
"Gay, Straight, and the Reason Why," which argues that sexual
orientation emerges from prenatal differentiation in the brain.
The DSM-5 is
released. Among other changes, the APA removes "gender identity
disorder" from the list of mental illnesses and replaces it with
"gender dysphoria" to describe a person's discomfort with their
John O'Keefe, May-Britt Moser, and Edvard Moser share
the Nobel Prize for their discovery of cells
that constitute a positioning system in the brain that is key to
memory and navigation.
Darren Stevens creates Constructed Development
Theory and unites previously asynchronous theories within
psychology by exposing our Self-Awareness. He later releases a
book called "Thinking Deliberately" to bring his idea to the